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Table 2 Comparison of several types of patient-derived xenograft models

From: Patient-derived xenografts as compatible models for precision oncology

PDX model Advantage Challenges
Subcutaneous model • Easy procedure
• Minimized tissue damage of mice
• Easy evaluation of tumor growth
• Maintaining tumor architecture and clonality
• Lack of proper tumor microenvironment
• Lack of metastasis
Orthotopic model • Preservation of microenvironment of primary tumor
• Spontaneous metastasis
• Requirement of microsurgical skills
• Imaging equipment required for longitudinal study
Subrenal model • Increased blood supply for tumor growth • Requirement of microsurgical skills
• Imaging equipment required for longitudinal study
Humanized model • Reconstitution of human immune cells
• Evaluation of cancer immunotherapy
• Requirement of long time for humanization and PDX generation
• Limited reconstitution of human immune system
Stromal cell co-implantation model • Supply of human stromal cells in tumor microenvironment • Change of tumor characteristics by stomal cells
Circulating tumor cell (CTC)-derived model • Minimally invasive in patient
• Easy to obtain samples
• Applicable for otherwise unavailable tumor specimens
• Preservation of intra-tumoral heterogeneity
• Requirement of technique for the enrichment of CTCs
• Variable concentration of CTCs in blood