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Table 1 Overview of the advantages, disadvantages, and references to promising genetic, neuroimaging, and neuromodulation technologies

From: Rodent models for psychiatric disorders: problems and promises







single cellular resolution


Large amount of data

Improving bioinformatic pipelines

Kolodziejczyk et al. (2015)

Ofengeim et al. (2017)

Saliba et al. (2014)


Cost and time efficient

Precise editing

Multiple genes simultaneously

Off-target effects

Editing efficiency

Doudna & Charpentier (2014)


 Fiber Photometry

Cell-type specific

High temporal resolution

Lack of individual cellular information

Dana et al. (2015)

Li et al. (2019)

 1/2-Photon Imaging

Cell-type specific

High temporal resolution

High spatial resolution

Larger head mount

Limited free movement

Widely invasive surgery

Leinweber et al. (2014)

Ozbay et al. (2018)



Cell-type specific

High temporal specificity

Capability of fine temporal manipulation

Difficulty targeting deeper structures

Implanted fiber cable

Boyden et al. (2005)

Govorunova et al. (2015)


Cell-type specific

Free moving behavior

Higher penetrance

Long duration effect

Potential off target effects of ligand

Relative low temporal specificity

Armbruster et al. (2007)

Magnus et al. (2019)