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Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of gallotannin-enriched extract isolated from Galla Rhois in ICR mice

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Abstract

To evaluate the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of Galla Rhois (GR) toward the liver and kidney of ICR mice, alterations in related markers including body weight, organ weight, urine composition, liver pathology and kidney pathology were analyzed after oral administration of 250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight/day of gallotannin-enriched extract of GR (GEGR) for 14 days. GEGR contained 68.7±2.5% of gallotannin, 25.3±0.9% of gallic acid and 4.4±0.1% of methyl gallate. Also, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, was decreased with 19% in the serum of high dose GEGR (HGEGR)-treated mice. The body and organ weight, clinical phenotypes, urine parameters and mice mortality did not differ among GEGR-treated groups and the vehicle-treated group. Furthermore, no significant increase was observed in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and the serum creatinine (Cr) in the GEGR-treated group relative to the vehicle- treated group. Moreover, the specific pathological features induced by most toxic compounds such as CCI4 were not observed upon liver and kidney histological analysis. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that GEGR does not induce any specific toxicity in liver and kidney organs of ICR at doses of 1,000 mg/kg body weight/day, indicating that this is no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL).

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Acknowledgments

We thank Professor Young Hee Lee in Department of Organic Material Science and Engineering of Pusan National University for kindly providing Galla Rhios samples. This study was supported by grants to Dr. Dae Youn Hwang from the Korea Institute of Planning Evaluation for Technology of Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (114034-03-1-HD030).

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Correspondence to Dae-Youn Hwang.

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Go, J., Kim, J., Koh, E. et al. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of gallotannin-enriched extract isolated from Galla Rhois in ICR mice. Lab Anim Res 31, 101–110 (2015) doi:10.5625/lar.2015.31.3.101

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Keywords

  • Galla Rhois
  • hepatotoxicity
  • nephrotoxicity
  • gallotannin
  • histopathology