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Modeling Parkinson’s disease in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): overview of models, methods, and animal care

Abstract

The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied, popular New World monkey and is used widely in reproductive biology, neuroscience, and drug development, due to its comparative ease of handling, high reproductive efficiency, and its unique behavioral characters. In this review, we discuss the marmoset models in Parkinson’s disease (PD), which is a neurological movement disorder primarily resulting from a degeneration of dopaminergic neurons with clinical features of tremor, rigidity, postural instability, and akinesia. The most common PD models involve the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl- 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or 6-hydroxydopamine to study the pathogenesis and to evaluate novel therapies. Following the systemic or local administration of these neurotoxins, the marmosets with very severe Parkinson’s symptoms are recommended to be placed in an intensive care unit with artificial feeding to increase survival rate. All procedures with MPTP should be conducted in a special room with enclosed cages under negative-pressure by trained researchers with personal protection. Behavioral tests are conducted to provide an external measure of the brain pathology. Along with several biomarkers, including α-synuclein and DJ-1, non-invasive neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are used to evaluate the functional changes associated with PD. With the recent growing interest in potential and novel therapies such as stem cell and gene therapy for PD in Korea, the marmoset can be considered as a suitable non-human primate model in PD research to bridge the gap between rodent studies and clinical applications.

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Correspondence to Byeong-Cheol Kang.

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Yun, J., Ahn, J. & Kang, B. Modeling Parkinson’s disease in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): overview of models, methods, and animal care. Lab Anim Res 31, 155–165 (2015). https://doi.org/10.5625/lar.2015.31.4.155

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Keywords

  • NHPs
  • Marmoset
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • MPTP
  • 6-OHDA
  • animal model