Cardiopulmonary effects of thiopental versus propofol as an induction agent prior to isoflurane anesthesia in chair trained rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)
Laboratory Animal Research volume 32, pages 8–15 (2016)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of thiopental versus propofol on cardiopulmonary functions, when used as an induction agent prior to isoflurane anesthesia in rhesus monkeys. Eight healthy rhesus monkeys weighing 3.72 to 5.7 kg, 4-5 years old, were used in the study. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental or propofol intravenous injection, and then maintained with isoflurane in oxygen for 45 minutes. Cardiopulmonary measurements were obtained before and 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after induction. The induction doses of thiopental and propofol were 19.41±0.54 and 9.33±1.02 mg/kg, respectively. In both groups, the values of heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pH, and lactate were decreased, while the values of partial pressure of carbon dioxide, partial pressure of oxygen, total carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, oxygen saturation, and base excess in the extracellular fluid were increased, as compared with baseline. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in thiopental group compare to propofol group. Induction time was very short in both agents but not revealed a significant difference between both groups. However, recovery time was extremely faster in the propofol group. Our results demonstrated that propofol provides a minor suppression in systolic arterial blood pressure than thiopental sodium. In addition, propofol have a fast recovery effect from the anesthesia as well. Furthermore, it is suggested that thiopental sodium could also be used to induce anesthesia instead of propofol, despite slight more suppression of cardiopulmonary function compared to thiopental sodium.
Bennett JS, Gossett KA, McCarthy MP, Simpson ED. Effects of ketamine hydrochloride on serum biochemical and hematologic variables in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Vet Clin Pathol 1992; 21(1): 15–18.
Lee JI, Hong SH, Lee SJ, Kim YS, Kim MC. Immobilization with ketamine HCl and tiletamine-zolazepam in cynomolgus monkeys. J Vet Sci 2003; 4(2): 187–191.
Davy CW, Trennery PN, Edmunds JG, Altman JF, Eichler DA. Local myotoxicity of ketamine hydrochloride in the marmoset. Lab Anim 1987; 21(1): 60–67.
Settle TL, Rico PJ, Lugo-Roman LA. The effect of daily repeated sedation using ketamine or ketamine combined with medetomidine on physiology and anesthetic characteristics in rhesus macaques. J Med Primatol 2010; 39(1): 50–57.
Springer DA, Baker KC. Effect of ketamine anesthesia on daily food intake in Macaca mulatta and Cercopithecus aethiops. Am J Primatol 2007; 69(10): 1080–1092.
Brainard BM, Campbell VL, Drobatz KJ, Perkowski SZ. The effects of surgery and anesthesia on blood magnesium and calcium concentrations in canine and feline patients. Vet Anaesth Analg 2007; 34(2): 89–98.
Chang J, Kim S, Jung J, Lee H, Chang D, Lee Y, Lee I, Yoon J, Choi M. Evaluation of the effects of thiopental, propofol, and etomidate on glomerular filtration rate measured by the use of dynamic computed tomography in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2011; 72(1): 146–151.
Enouri SS, Kerr CL, McDonell WN, Dyson DH. Cardiopulmonary effects of anesthetic induction with thiopental, propofol, or a combination of ketamine hydrochloride and diazepam in dogs sedated with a combination of medetomidine and hydromorphone. Am J Vet Res 2008; 69(5): 586–595.
Kojima K, Nishimura R, Mutoh T, Hong SH, Mochizuki M, Sasaki N. Effects of medetomidine-midazolam, acepromazine-butorphanol, and midazolam-butorphanol on induction dose of thiopental and propofol and on cardiopulmonary changes in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2002; 63(12): 1671–1679.
Turner DM, Ilkiw JE. Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of three rapidly acting barbiturates in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1990; 51(4): 598–604.
Foster A, Zeller W, Pfannkuche HJ. Effect of thiopental, saffan, and propofol anesthesia on cardiovascular parameters and bronchial smooth muscle in the rhesus monkey. Lab Anim Sci 1996; 46(3): 327–334.
Fayyaz S, Kerr CL, Dyson DH, Mirakhur KK. The cardiopulmonary effects of anesthetic induction with isoflurane, ketamine-diazepam or propofol-diazepam in the hypovolemic dog. Vet Anaesth Analg 2009; 36(2): 110–123.
Aeschbacher G, Webb AI. Propofol in rabbits. 2. Long-term anesthesia. Lab Anim Sci 1993; 43(4): 328–335.
Quandt JE, Robinson EP, Rivers WJ, Raffe MR. Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects of propofol and thiopental in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1998; 59(9): 1137–1143.
Lee JI, Shin JS, Lee JE, Jung W Y, Lee G, Kim MS, Park CG, Kim SJ. Changes of N/L ratio and cortisol levels associated with experimental training in untrained rhesus macaques. J Med Primatol 2013; 42(1): 10–14.
Enlund M, Andersson J, Hartvig P, Valtysson J, Wiklund L. Cerebral normoxia in the rhesus monkey during isoflurane- or propofol-induced hypotension and hypocapnia, despite disparate blood-flow patterns. A positron emission tomography study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1997; 41(8): 1002–1010.
Portier KG, Broillet A, Rioufol G, Lepage OM, Depecker M, Taborik F, Tranquart F, Contamin H. A novel minimal invasive closed chest myocardial ischaemia reperfusion model in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): improved stability of cardiorespiratory parameters. Lab Anim 2012; 46(2): 129–135.
Mutoh T, Nishimura R, Kim H Y, Matsunaga S, Sasaki N. Cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane, compared with halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane, in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1997; 58(8): 885–890.
Fanton JW, Zarr SR, Ewert DL, Woods RW, Koenig SC. Cardiovascular responses to propofol and etomidate in long-term instrumented rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Comp Med 2000; 50(3): 303–308.
Ator NA. Selectivity in generalization to GABAergic drugs in midazolam-trained baboons. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2003; 75(2): 435–445.
Martin LD, Dissen GA, McPike MJ, Brambrink AM. Effects of anesthesia with isoflurane, ketamine, or propofol on physiologic parameters in neonatal rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2014; 53(3): 290–300.
Lugo-Roman LA, Rico PJ, Sturdivant R, Burks R, Settle TL. Effects of serial anesthesia using ketamine or ketamine/medetomidine on hematology and serum biochemistry values in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). J Med Primatol 2010; 39(1): 41–49.
About this article
Cite this article
Choi, YJ., Park, HJ., Kim, HH. et al. Cardiopulmonary effects of thiopental versus propofol as an induction agent prior to isoflurane anesthesia in chair trained rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Lab Anim Res 32, 8–15 (2016). https://doi.org/10.5625/lar.2016.32.1.8
- rhesus monkey