Skip to main content

Reference values of clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) used in preclinical studies

Abstract

Nonhuman primates are increasingly used in biomedical research since they are highly homologous to humans compared to other rodent animals. However, there is limited reliable reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys, and in particular, only some coagulation and urinalysis parameters have been reported. Here, we reported the reference data of clinical chemical, hematological, blood coagulation, and urinalysis parameters in cynomolgus monkeys. The role of sex differences was analyzed and several parameters (including hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cell, blood urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine kinase, gamma-glutamyl tranferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) significantly differed between male and female subjects. In addition, compared to previous study results, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase showed significant variation. Interstudy differences could be affected by several factors, including age, sex, geographic origin, presence/absence of anesthetics, fasting state, and the analytical methods used. Therefore, it is important to deliberate with the overall reference indices. In conclusion, the current study provides a comprehensive and updated reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys and provides improved assessment criteria for evaluating preclinical studies or biomedical research.

References

  1. 1.

    Xie L, Xu F, Liu S, Ji Y, Zhou Q, Wu Q, Gong W, Cheng K, Li J, Li L, Fang L, Zhou L, Xie P. Age- and sex-based hematological and biochemical parameters for Macaca fascicularis. PLoS One 2013; 8(6): e64892.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Drevon-Gaillot E, Perron-Lepage MF, Clément C, Burnett R. A review of background findings in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from three different geographical origins. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2006; 58(2-3): 77–88.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Pritam S, Sahota JAP, Jerry F. Hardisty, Chirukandath Gopinath. Toxicologic Pathology: Nonclinical Safety Assessment, Taylor & Francis Group, London, 2013; pp 154–159.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Koga T, Kanefuji K, Nakama K. Individual reference intervals of hematological and serum biochemical parameters in cynomolgus monkeys. Int J Toxicol 2005; 24(5): 377–385.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Schuurman HJ, Smith HT. Reference values for clinical chemistry and clinical hematology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys. Xenotransplantation 2005; 12(1): 72–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Zeng XC, Yang CM, Pan XY, Yao YS, Pan W, Zhou C, Jiang ZR, Chang Y, Ma J. Effects of fasting on hematologic and clinical chemical values in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). J Med Primatol 2011; 40(1): 21–26.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Perretta G, Violante A, Scarpulla M, Beciani M, Monaco V. Normal serum biochemical and hematological parameters in Macaca fascicularis. J Med Primatol 1991; 20(7): 345–351.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Bonfanti U, Lamparelli D, Colombo P, Bernardi C. Hematology and serum chemistry parameters in juvenile cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) of Mauritius origin: comparison between purpose-bred and captured animals. J Med Primatol 2009; 38(4): 228–235.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Lugo-Roman LA, Rico PJ, Sturdivant R, Burks R, Settle TL. Effects of serial anesthesia using ketamine or ketamine/medetomidine on hematology and serum biochemistry values in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). J Med Primatol 2010; 39(1): 41–49.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Kim CY, Lee HS, Han SC, Heo JD, Kwon MS, Ha CS, Han SS. Hematological and serum biochemical values in cynomolgus monkeys anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride. J Med Primatol 2005; 34(2): 96–100.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Yoshida T, Suzuki K, Cho F, Honjo S. [Age-related changes in hematological and serum biochemical values in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) bred and reared using the indoor individually-caged system]. Jikken Dobutsu 1986; 35(3): 329–338.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Syakalima M, Takiguchi M, Yasuda J, Hashimoto A. The age dependent levels of serum ALP isoenzymes and the diagnostic significance of corticosteroid-induced ALP during long-term glucocorticoid treatment. J Vet Med Sci 1997; 59(10): 905–909.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Evans GO. Animal clinical chemistry, Taylor & Francis, London, 2009; pp 257–258.

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    O’Brien PJ. Cardiac troponin is the most effective translational safety biomarker for myocardial injury in cardiotoxicity. Toxicology 2008; 245(3): 206–218.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Chen Y, Qin S, Ding Y, Wei L, Zhang J, Li H, Bu H, Lu Y, Cheng J. Reference values of clinical chemistry and hematology parameters in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Xenotransplantation 2009; 16(6): 496–501.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Petterino C, Argentino-Storino A. Clinical chemistry and haematology historical data in control Sprague-Dawley rats from pre-clinical toxicity studies. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2006; 57(3): 213–219

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yong-Bum Kim.

Rights and permissions

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (https://doi.org/creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Park, H., Cho, J., Lee, B. et al. Reference values of clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) used in preclinical studies. Lab Anim Res 32, 79–86 (2016). https://doi.org/10.5625/lar.2016.32.2.79

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cynomolgus monkey
  • clinical chemistry
  • hematology
  • blood coagulation
  • urinalysis