- Open Access
Cerebral ischemic injury decreases α-synuclein expression in brain tissue and glutamate-exposed HT22 cells
Laboratory Animal Research volume 33, pages 244–250 (2017)
α-Synuclein is abundantly expressed in neuronal tissue, plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, and exerts a neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress. Cerebral ischemia causes severe neurological disorders and neuronal dysfunction. In this study, we examined α-synuclein expression in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemic injury and neuronal cells damaged by glutamate treatment. MCAO surgical operation was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats, and brain samples were isolated 24 hours after MCAO. We confirmed neurological behavior deficit, infarction area, and histopathological changes following MCAO injury. A proteomic approach and Western blot analysis demonstrated a decrease in α-synuclein in the cerebral cortices after MCAO injury. Moreover, glutamate treatment induced neuronal cell death and decreased α-synuclein expression in a hippocampal-derived cell line in a dose-dependent manner. It is known that α-synuclein regulates neuronal survival, and low levels of α-synuclein expression result in cytotoxicity. Thus, these results suggest that cerebral ischemic injury leads to a reduction in α-synuclein and consequently causes serious brain damage.
Schaller B, Graf R. Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion: the pathophysiologic concept as a basis for clinical therapy. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2004; 24(4): 351–371.
Min D, Mao X, Wu K, Cao Y, Guo F, Zhu S, Xie N, Wang L, Chen T, Shaw C, Cai J. Donepezil attenuates hippocampal neuronal damage and cognitive deficits after global cerebral ischemia in gerbils. Neurosci Lett 2012; 510(1): 29–33.
Sims NR, Muyderman H. Mitochondria, oxidative metabolism and cell death in stroke. Biochim Biophys Acta 2010; 1802(1): 80–91.
Starkov AA, Chinopoulos C, Fiskum G. Mitochondrial calcium and oxidative stress as mediators of ischemic brain injury. Cell Calcium 2004; 36(3-4): 257–264.
Rink C, Khanna S. MicroRNA in ischemic stroke etiology and pathology. Physiol Genomics. 2011; 43(10): 521–528.
Hayashi T, Abe K. Ischemic neuronal cell death and organellae damage. Neurol Res 2004; 26(8): 827–834.
Sidhu A, Wersinger C, Vernier P. Does alpha-synuclein modulate dopaminergic synaptic content and tone at the synapse? FASEB J 2004; 18(6): 637–647.
Zhu M, Qin ZJ, Hu D, Munishkina LA, Fink AL. Alpha-synuclein can function as an antioxidant preventing oxidation of unsaturated lipid in vesicles. Biochemistry 2006; 45(26): 8135–8142.
Zhu M, Li W, Lu C. Role of alpha-synuclein protein levels in mitochondrial morphology and cell survival in cell lines. PLoS One 2012; 7(4): e36377.
Adibhatla MR, Hatcher JF. Phospholipase A2, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation in cerebral ischemia. Free Radic Biol Med 2006; 40(3): 376–387.
Adibhatla RM, Hatcher JF. Phospholipase A(2), reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation in CNS pathologies. BMB Rep 2008: 41(8): 560–567.
Angelova PR, Horrocks MH, Klenerman D, Gandhi S. Abramov AY, Shchepinov MS. Lipid peroxidation is essential for α-synuclein-induced cell death. J Neurochem 2015; 133(4): 582–589.
Longa EZ, Weinstein PR, Carlson S, Cummins R. Reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion without craniectomy in rats. Stroke 1989; 20(1): 84–91.
Maher P, Davis JB. The role of monoamine metabolism in oxidative glutamate toxicity. J Neurosci 1996; 16(20): 6394–6401.
Ferrer I, Planas AM. Signaling of cell death and cell survival following focal cerebral ischemia: life and death struggle in the penumbra. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2003; 62(4): 329–339.
Li Y, Chopp M, Powers C, Jiang N. Apoptosis and protein expression after focal cerebral ischemia in rat. Brain Res 1997; 765(2): 301–312.
Kaplan B, Ratner V, Haas E. Alpha-synuclein: its biological function and role in neurodegenerative diseases. J Mol Neurosci 2003; 20(2): 83–92.
Ma QL, Chan P, Yoshii M, Uéda K. Alpha-synuclein aggregation and neurodegenerative diseases. J Alzheimers Dis 2003; 5(2): 139–148.
Zarranz JJ, Alegre J, Gómez-Esteban JC, Lezcano E, Ros R, Ampuero I, Vidal L, Hoenicka J, Rodriguez O, Atarés B, Llorens V, Gomez Tortosa E, del Ser T, Muñoz DG, de Yebenes JG. The new mutation, E46K, of alpha-synuclein causes Parkinson and Lewy body dementia. Ann Neurol 2004; 55(2): 164–173.
Lee M, Hyun D, Halliwell B, Jenner P. Effect of the overexpression of wild-type or mutant alpha-synuclein on cell susceptibility to insult. J Neurochem 2001; 76(4): 998–1009.
Pompella A, Visvikis A, Paolicchi A, De Tata V, Casini AF. The changing faces of glutathione, a cellular protagonist. Biochem Pharmacol 2003; 66(8): 1499–1503.
Seo JH, Rah JC, Choi SH, Shin JK, Min K, Kim HS, Park CH, Kim S, Kim EM, Lee SH, Lee S, Suh SW, Suh YH. Alpha-synuclein regulates neuronal survival via Bcl-2 family expression and PI3/Akt kinase pathway. FASEB J 2002; 16(13): 1826–1828.
About this article
Cite this article
Koh, PO. Cerebral ischemic injury decreases α-synuclein expression in brain tissue and glutamate-exposed HT22 cells. Lab Anim Res 33, 244–250 (2017). https://doi.org/10.5625/lar.2017.33.3.244
- cerebral ischemia
- hippocampal-derived cell line